Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the “father of the computer”, he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century.
A BRIEF COMPUTER HISTORY:
The computer as we know it today had its beginning with a 19th century English mathematics professor name Charles Babbage.
He designed the Analytical Engine and it was this design that the basic framework of the computers of today are based on.
Generally speaking, computers can be classified into three generations. Each generation lasted for a certain period of
time,and each gave us either a new and improved computer or an improvement to the existing computer.
First generation: 1937 – 1946 – In 1937 the first electronic digital computer was built by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. It was called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). In 1943 an electronic computer name the Colossus was built for the military. Other developments continued until in 1946 the first general– purpose digital computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was built. It is said that this computer weighed 30 tons, and had 18,000 vacuum tubes which was used for processing. When this computer was turned on for the first time lights dim in sections of Philadelphia. Computers of this generation could only perform single task, and they had no operating system.
Second generation: 1947 – 1962 – This generation of computers used transistors instead of vacuum tubes which were more reliable. In 1951 the first computer for commercial use was introduced to the public; the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC 1). In 1953 the International Business Machine (IBM) 650 and 700 series computers made their mark in the computer world. During this generation of computers over 100 computer programming languages were developed, computers had memory and operating systems. Storage media such as tape and disk were in use also were printers for output.
Third generation: 1963 – present – The invention of integrated circuit brought us the third generation of computers. With this invention computers became smaller, more powerful more reliable and they are able to run many different programs at the same time. In1980 Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-Dos) was born and in 1981 IBM introduced the personal computer (PC) for home and office use. Three years later Apple gave us the Macintosh computer with its icon driven interface and the 90s gave us Windows operating system.
As a result of the various improvements to the development of the computer, we have seen the computer being used in all areas of life. It is a very useful tool that will continue to experience new development as time passes.
History of Computers:
This chapter is a brief summary of the history of Computers. It is supplemented by the two PBS documentaries videotapes “Inventing the Future” And “The Paperback Computer”. The chapter highlights some of the advances to look for in the documentaries.
In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things:
The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data:
Vacuum Tubes (1950s) – one bit on the size of a thumb;
Transistors (1950s and 1960s) – one bit on the size of a fingernail;
Integrated Circuits (1960s and 70s) – thousands of bits on the size of a hand
Silicon computer chips (1970s and on) – millions of bits on the size of a finger nail.
The progression of the ease of use of computers:
Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses (1950s);
Programmable by highly trained people only (1960s and 1970s);
Useable by just about anyone (1980s and on).
to see how computers got smaller, cheaper, and easier to use.
Major computer events in 2017:
On May 12, 2017, the WannaCry ransomware attack began to attack computers running Microsoft Windows. The worm infected more than 230,000 computers in over 150 different countries and demanded $300 – $1,200 in bitcoin to unlock the computers encrypted data.
The History of Computers in Business:
In many ways, the history of computers in business goes hand-in-hand with the advent of the industrial revolution and the subsequent advances in science and technology. With almost every advance in our knowledge of computer technology, the business world changed fundamentally, transforming the dusty old ledgers of New York trading companies, into modern networks connecting millions of businesses worldwide and moving billions of dollars across fiber optic cables.