A computer system consists of two major elements: hardware and software. Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts you can physically touch.
Computer System Hardware Classes
The Computer System Hardware category groups classes together that represent hardware related objects. Examples include input devices, hard disks, expansion cards, video devices, networking devices, and system power.
Cooling Device Classes
Input Device Classes
Mass Storage Classes
Motherboard, Controller, and Port Classes
Networking Device Classes
Video and Monitor Classes
Hardware components computer system:
Hardware is the most visible part of any information system: the equipment such as computers, scanners, and printers that are used to capture data, transform it and present it to the user as output. Although we will focus mainly on the personal computer (PC) and the peripheral devices that are commonly used with it, the same principles apply to the complete range of computers:
The Hard Drive:
The hard drive is where the computer stores data for long-term use. Hard drives have a hard, disk-shaped platter made of a magnetic material, and use magnets to store data on the platter. The magnetic material allows the computer to easily erase and rewrite the data whenever it needs to.
The motherboard, also called the logic board or mainboard, is a board with electrical circuits printed on it that holds many of the computer’s essential components. The electrical circuits on the board allow the components to receive power and communicate with each other.
The CPU, or Central Processing Unit, is the brain of the computer. CPUs do two major things: performing mathematical and logical operations (in other words, making the computer do stuff), and retrieving and carrying out instructions from the computer’s memory.
RAM, or Random Access Memory, is a type of computer memory used for short-term data storage. It is usually an integrated circuit board installed in the motherboard.
How much RAM your computer has can affect its performance. Some tasks like playing games or editing videos will use a lot more RAM than others. If it seems like your computer is taking forever to complete tasks, you may need to add more RAM.
Fortunately, it’s very easy to upgrade RAM. You simply install more boards or replace the ones already installed. But, before you buy any, be sure to figure out exactly how much you need and how much can fit in your computer, and get a trusted adult to help you.
The Graphics Card:
A graphics card, or video card, processes, and outputs images to the computer’s monitor
. The less expensive graphics card is integrated directly into the motherboard, but more powerful cards come as a separate component that you can replace without having to change the entire motherboard.
The Network Interface Card:
A network interface card lets you connect your computer to a network. It can be a local one, like a LAN, or the Internet if the computer connects to a modem.
The Sound Card:
Sound card processes and plays sound files. It can work with both the internal and external speakers to provide sound. Of course, the better the sound card and speakers are, the better the sound quality.
Input devices are hardware devices that take information from the user of the computer system, convert it into electrical signals and transmit it to the processor.
The primary function of input devices is to allow humans to interact with the computer system. For instance, a mouse allows the user to control the movement of the pointer (a common element in user interface design).
Output devices: take data from the computer system and convert it into a form that can be read by humans. For instance, a monitor creates a visual electronic display to output information created by the processor to the user.
Processing devices are the components responsible for the processing of information within the computer system. This includes devices such as the CPU, memory, and motherboard.
Storage devices are components that allow data to be stored within a computer system. This includes devices such as hard disk drives and compact disk drives.
Functional Components of a Computer:
Computer: A computer is a combination of hardware and software resources that integrate together and provides various functionalities to the user.
Hardware is the physical components of a computer like a processor, memory devices, monitor, keyboard, etc. while the software is the set of programs or instructions that are required by the hardware resources to function properly.
There are a few basic components that aid the working-cycle of a computer i.e. the Input- Process- Output Cycle and these are called as the functional components of a computer.
It needs certain input, processes that input and produces the desired output. The input unit takes the input, the central processing unit does the processing of data and the output unit produces the output. The memory unit holds the data and instructions during the processing.
Digital Computer: A digital computer can be defined as a programmable machine that reads the binary data passed as instructions, processes this binary data, and displays a calculated digital output. Therefore, Digital computers are those that work on digital data.
Computer specification (Hardware)
Computer hardware specifications are technical descriptions of the computer’s components and capabilities. Processor speed, model and manufacturer.
Processor speed is typically indicated in gigahertz (GHz). The higher the number, the faster the computer
. Random Access Memory (RAM), is typically indicated in gigabytes (GB).
The more RAM in a computer the more it can do simultaneously. Hard disk (sometimes called ROM) space.
This is typically indicated in gigabytes (GB) and refers generally to the amount of information (like documents, music and other data) your computer can hold. Other specifications might include network (ethernet or wi-fi) adapters or audio and video capabilities.